Find your industry

Most major industry classification systems use sources of revenue as their basis for classifying companies into specific sectors and industries. In order to group like companies based on their sustainability-related risks and opportunities, a new industry classification was needed. The Sustainable Industry Classification System® (SICS®) solves that problem. The differences between SICS® and traditional industry classification systems can be categorised in three types: (1) new thematic sectors; (2) new industries with unique sustainability profiles; and (3) industries classified in different sectors.

Unlike other industry classification systems—which use common financial and market characteristics— SICS® uses sustainability profiles to group similar companies within industries and sectors. In SICS®, a company’s sustainability risks and opportunities are more important for its classification than other traditional factors, such as economic cycles and revenue streams. A company’s SICS® classification is determined by overlaying its sustainability framework to other industry taxonomies.

SICS® look-up tool

This tool allows you to determine the primary SICS® industry for tens of thousands of companies listed around the world, enabling investors and corporations to determine which SASB Standard is applicable to that company. Companies are categorised under a single primary SICS® industry. Integrated firms with revenue streams from different industries, for example, will only appear under one industry. Please contact us by clicking on the flag () next to the company name if you think that your company’s “primary” industry needs to be reviewed. For guidance for companies that report in multiple industries, please see the “Determine Which Industry Standards Apply” section of the SASB Implementation Primer.

An entity determines which Industry Standard(s) and which disclosure topics are relevant to its business, and which associated metrics to report. In general, an entity should use the SASB Standard specific to its primary industry as identified in SICS®. However, companies with substantial business in multiple SICS® industries should refer to and consider the applicability of the disclosure topics and associated metrics in additional SASB Standards.

Once you have found your industry or industries, download the SASB Standard(s).

Commercial use of the Sustainable Industry Classification System® (SICS®) is restricted to those parties that have entered into commercial terms and use agreements. Interested parties who would like to use SICS® for commercial purposes may contact us at [email protected] for terms of use.

If you are unable to find your company or think the classification needs to be reviewed, please contact us using our classification request form. For any SICS®-related inquiries please visit our inquiry form.

Sustainable Industry Classification System®

Consumer Goods 7 Industries
  • Apparel, Accessories & Footwear
    The Apparel, Accessories & Footwear industry includes entities involved in the design, manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing of various products, including adult and children’s clothing, handbags, jewellery, watches and footwear. Products are manufactured primarily by vendors in emerging markets, thereby allowing entities in the industry to focus on design, wholesaling, marketing, supply chain management and retail activities.
  • Appliance Manufacturing
    Appliance Manufacturing industry entities design and manufacture household appliances and hand tools. Entities in this industry sell and manufacture products all over the world, primarily selling products to consumers through retailers.
  • Building Products & Furnishings
    Entities in the Building Products & Furnishings industry design and manufacture home improvement products, home and office furnishings, and structural wood building materials. The industry’s products include flooring, ceiling tiles, home and office furniture and fixtures, wood trusses, plywood, panelling and lumber. Entities typically sell their products through distribution channels to retail stores or through independent or entity-owned dealerships.
  • E-Commerce
    E-Commerce industry entities provide an online marketplace for other entities or individuals to sell their goods and services, as well as retailers and wholesalers that provide an exclusively web-based platform for consumers to buy goods and services. Entities in this industry sell to consumers as well as to other businesses. Because of the accessibility of e-commerce sites, the industry is a global marketplace for buyers and sellers.
  • Household & Personal Products
    Household & Personal Products industry entities manufacture a wide range of goods for personal and commercial consumption, including cosmetics, household and industrial cleaning supplies, soaps and detergents, sanitary paper products, household batteries, razors and kitchen utensils. Household and personal products entities operate globally and typically sell their products to mass merchants, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores, high-frequency stores, distributors and e-commerce retailers. Some entities sell products through independent representatives rather than third-party retail establishments.
  • Multiline and Specialty Retailers & Distributors
    The Multiline and Specialty Retailers & Distributors industry encompasses a variety of retailing categories such as department stores, mass merchants, home products stores and warehouse clubs, as well as a smaller segment of distributors like electronics wholesalers and automotive wholesalers. These entities (except for the distribution segment) commonly manage global supply chains to anticipate consumer demands, keep costs low and keep products stocked in their brick-and-mortar storefronts. This is a highly competitive industry in which each category generally has a small number of important players characterised by generally low margins. The relatively substitutable nature of retail makes entities in this industry especially susceptible to reputational risks.
  • Toys & Sporting Goods
    The Toys & Sporting Goods industry comprises two distinct segments that produce leisure products: entities that manufacture toys and games, and entities that manufacture sporting and athletic goods, such as bicycles, golf clubs, fitness equipment, and other similar products. Entities in this industry primarily sell their products to consumers through retail stores. The level of manufacturing integration varies among and within segments of the industry; manufacturing is based primarily in Asia, with China accounting for a majority of production.
Extractives & Minerals Processing 8 Industries
  • Coal Operations
    The Coal Operations industry includes entities that mine coal and those that manufacture coal products. Mining activity covers both underground and surface mining, and thermal and metallurgical coal.
  • Construction Materials
    Construction Materials entities have global operations and produce construction materials for sale to construction entities or wholesale distributors. These primarily include cement and aggregates, but also glass, plastic materials, insulation, bricks and roofing material. Materials producers operate their own quarries, mining crushed stone or sand and gravel. They may also purchase raw materials from the mining and petroleum industries.
  • Iron & Steel Producers
    The Iron & Steel Producers industry primarily consists of entities producing iron and steel in mills and foundries. The steel producers segment produces iron and steel products from its own mills. These products include flat-rolled sheets, tin plates, pipes, tubes, and products made of stainless steel, titanium and high alloy steels. Iron and steel foundries, which cast various products, typically purchase iron and steel from other entities. The industry also includes metal service centres and other metal merchant wholesalers, which distribute, import or export ferrous products. Though entities are developing alternative processes, steel production primarily relies on two primary methods: the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), which uses iron ore as an input, and the electric arc furnace (EAF), which uses scrap steel. Many entities in the industry operate on an international scale. Note: With a few exceptions, most entities do not mine their own ore to manufacture steel and iron products. There exists a separate standard for the Metals & Mining (EM-MM) industry.
  • Metals & Mining
    The Metals & Mining industry is involved in extracting metals and minerals, producing ores, quarrying stones, smelting and manufacturing metals, refining metals, and providing mining support activities. Entities also produce iron ores, rare earth metals, and precious metals and stones. Larger entities in this industry are integrated vertically – from mining across global operations to wholesaling metals to customers.
  • Oil & Gas – Exploration & Production
    Oil & Gas - Exploration & Production (E&P) entities explore for, extract or produce energy products such as crude oil and natural gas, which comprise the upstream operations of the oil and gas value chain. Entities in the industry develop conventional and unconventional oil and gas reserves; these include shale oil or gas reserves, oil sands and gas hydrates. Activities covered by this standard include the development of both on-shore and off-shore reserves. The E&P industry creates contracts with the Oil and Gas Services industry to conduct several E&P activities and to obtain equipment and oilfield services.
  • Oil & Gas – Midstream
    Oil & Gas - Midstream industry entities transport or store natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Midstream natural gas activities involve gathering, transporting and processing natural gas from the wellhead, such as the removal of impurities, production of natural gas liquids, storage, pipeline transport and shipping, liquefaction, or regasification of liquefied natural gas. Midstream oil activities mainly involve transporting crude oil and refined products using pipeline networks, truck and rail, and marine transport on tankers or barges. Entities that operate storage and distribution terminals, as well as those that manufacture and install storage tanks and pipelines, are also part of this industry.
  • Oil & Gas – Refining & Marketing
    Oil & Gas - Refining & Marketing (R&M) entities refine petroleum products, market oil and gas products, or operate gas stations, all of which comprise the downstream operations of the oil and gas value chain. The types of refinery products and crude oil inputs influence the complexity of the refining process used, with varied expenditure needs and intensity of environmental and social impacts.
  • Oil & Gas – Services
    Oil and gas services entities drill under contract, manufacture equipment, or provide support services. Drilling and drilling-support entities drill for oil and natural gas on-shore and off-shore on a contract basis for oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) entities. For on-shore exploration and production, entities in the oilfield services segment manufacture equipment used in the extraction, storage and transportation of oil and natural gas. For off-shore, entities in this segment may manufacture jack-up rigs, semisubmersible rigs, drill ships and a range of other exploration equipment. They also provide support services such as seismic surveying, equipment rental, well cementing and well monitoring. These services commonly are provided on a contractual basis, and the customer purchases or leases the materials and equipment from the service provider. Service entities also may provide personnel or subject matter expertise as part of their scope of service. The contractual relationship between oil and gas services entities and their customers plays a significant role in determining the material impacts of their sustainability performance. Besides the rates charged, entities compete based on their operational and safety performance, technology and process offerings, project management performance, and reputation.
Financials 7 Industries
  • Asset Management & Custody Activities
    Asset Management & Custody Activities industry entities manage investment portfolios on a commission or fee basis for institutional, retail and high net-worth investors. In addition, entities in this industry provide wealth management, private banking, financial planning, and investment advisory and retail securities brokerage services. Investment portfolios and strategies may be diversified across multiple asset classes, which may include equities, fixed income and hedge fund investments. Specific entities are engaged in venture capital and private equity investments. The industry provides essential services to a range of customers from individual retail investors to large, institutional asset owners to meet specified investment goals. Entities in the industry range from large multi-jurisdictional asset managers with a wide range of investable products, strategies and asset classes to small boutique entities providing services to specific market niches. While large entities generally compete based on management fees charged for their services as well as their potential to generate superior investment performance, the smaller entities generally compete on their ability to provide products and services customised to satisfy the diversification needs of individual clients. The global 2008 financial crisis and subsequent regulatory regime developments highlight the industry’s importance in providing fair advice to customers and managing risks at the entity, portfolio and macroeconomic levels.
  • Commercial Banks
    Commercial banks accept deposits and make loans to individuals and corporations, and engage in lending to infrastructure, real estate and other projects. By providing these services, the industry serves an essential role in the functioning of global economies and in facilitating the transfer of financial resources to their most productive capacity. The industry is driven by the volume of deposits, quality of loans made, the economic environment and interest rates. The risk from mismatched assets and liabilities further characterises the industry. The regulatory environment governing the commercial banking industry witnessed significant changes in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis and continues to evolve today. These and other regulatory trends may affect performance. Commercial banks with global operations must manage new regulations in many jurisdictions that are creating regulatory uncertainty, particularly regarding the consistent application of new rules.
  • Consumer Finance
    The Consumer Finance industry provides loans to consumers. The largest segment of the industry is comprised of revolving credit loans through credit card products. Additional loan services include auto, micro lending, and student loans. Some entities in the industry also provide consumer-to-consumer money transfers, money orders, prepaid debit cards, and bill payment services. Industry performance is determined by consumer spending, rates of unemployment, per capita GDP, income, and population growth. Recent shifts toward consumer protection and transparency have aligned and will continue to align the interests of society with those of long-term investors. Entities that effectively manage their social capital will therefore be better positioned to maximise their financial capital.
  • Insurance
    The Insurance industry provides both traditional and non-traditional insurance-related products. Traditional policy lines include property, life, casualty and reinsurance. Non-traditional products include annuities, alternative risk transfers and financial guarantees. Entities in the insurance industry also engage in proprietary investments. Insurance entities generally operate within a single segment in the industry, for example, property and casualty, although some large insurance entities have diversified operations. Similarly, entities may vary based on the level of their geographical segmentation. Whereas large entities may underwrite insurance premiums in many countries, smaller entities generally operate in a single country or jurisdiction. Insurance premiums, underwriting revenue and investment income drive industry growth, while insurance claim payments present the most significant cost and source of uncertainty for profits. Insurance entities provide products and services that enable the transfer, pooling and sharing of risk necessary for a well-functioning economy. Insurance entities, through their products, can also create a form of moral hazard, reducing incentives to improve underlying behaviour and performance, and thus contributing to sustainability-related impacts. Like other financial institutions, insurance entities face risks associated with credit and financial markets. Within the industry, regulators have identified entities that engage in non-traditional or non-insurance activities, including credit default swaps (CDS) protection and debt securities insurance, as being more vulnerable to financial market developments, and therefore more likely to amplify or contribute to systemic risk. As a result, some insurance entities may be designated as Systemically Important Financial Institutions, thus exposing them to increased regulation and oversight.
  • Investment Banking & Brokerage
    Investment Banking & Brokerage industry entities perform a wide range of functions in the capital markets, including raising and allocating capital and providing market-making and advisory services for corporations, financial institutions, governments and high net-worth individuals. Specific activities include financial advisory and securities underwriting services conducted on a fee basis; securities and commodities brokerage activities, which involve buying and selling securities or commodities contracts and options on a commission or fee basis; and trading and principal investment activities, which involve the buying and selling of equities, fixed income, currencies, commodities and other securities for client-driven and proprietary trading. Investment banks also originate and securitise loans for infrastructure and other projects. Entities in the industry generate revenues from global markets and, therefore, are exposed to various regulatory regimes. The industry continues to face regulatory pressure to reform and disclose aspects of operations that present systemic risks. Specifically, entities are facing new capital requirements, stress testing, limits on proprietary trading and increased scrutiny over compensation practices.
  • Mortgage Finance
    The Mortgage Finance industry provides an essential public good by enabling consumers to purchase homes and contributing to the overall home ownership rate. Entities in the industry lend capital to individual and commercial customers using property as collateral. The primary products are residential and commercial mortgages, while other services offered include mortgage servicing, title insurance, closing and settlement services, and valuation. In addition, mortgage finance entities own, manage and finance real estate-related investments such as mortgage pass-through certificates and collateralised mortgage obligations. Recent trends in the regulatory environment indicate a significant shift towards consumer protection, disclosure and accountability. Regulatory changes made in response to the global 2008 financial crisis demonstrate the potential for further alignment between the interests of society and those of long-term investors.
  • Security & Commodity Exchanges
    Security and commodity exchanges operate marketplaces in the form of physical trading floors or electronic platforms for trading financial securities, commodities, or other financial instruments. Entities in the industry primarily generate revenue from fees on trades and for clearing transactions as well as listing fees. Competition for fees continues to increase with the advent of alternative trading platforms that offer less expensive trades and provide listing services. Recent trends in the regulatory environment suggest a greater focus on transparency, risk management, and market stability. As new policies and market transformations encourage more responsible management of social capital and strong governance, firms that can address all forms of capital—not just financial—will be better positioned to protect shareholder value in the future.
Food & Beverage 8 Industries
  • Agricultural Products
    The Agricultural Products industry is engaged in processing, trading and distributing vegetables and fruits, and producing and milling agricultural commodities such as grains, sugar, consumable oils, maize, soybeans and animal feed. Entities sell products directly to consumers and businesses for use in consumer and industrial products. Entities in the industry typically purchase agricultural products from entities that grow such products (either directly or indirectly) to then conduct value-adding activities (for example, processing, trading, distributing and milling). Agricultural products entities also are involved in wholesale and distribution. Entities in the industry may source a substantial portion of agricultural commodities from third-party growers in various countries. Therefore, managing sustainability risks within the supply chain is critical to securing a reliable raw materials supply and reducing the risk of price increases and volatility over the long term.
  • Alcoholic Beverages
    Alcoholic Beverages industry entities brew, distil and manufacture various alcoholic beverages including beer, wine and liquor. Entities in this industry transform agricultural products including sugar, barley and corn, into finished alcoholic beverages. The largest entities have global operations with portfolios of man branded products. Levels of vertical integration within the industry vary because of regulation in different markets. Breweries generally have multiple manufacturing facilities to provide access to different markets, while vintners and distillers typically are located where they have a history of production.
  • Food Retailers & Distributors
    The Food Retailers & Distributors industry consists of entities engaged in wholesale and retail sales of food, beverage and agricultural products. Store formats include retail supermarkets, convenience stores, warehouse supermarkets, liquor stores, bakeries, natural food stores, specialty food stores, seafood stores and distribution centres. Entities may specialise in one type of store format or have facilities that contain many formats. Products typically are sourced worldwide and include fresh meat and produce, prepared foods, processed foods, baked goods, frozen and canned foods, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages, and a wide selection of household goods and personal care products. Food retailers also may produce or sell private-label products.
  • Meat, Poultry & Dairy
    The Meat, Poultry & Dairy industry produces raw and processed animal products, including meats, eggs and dairy products, for human and animal consumption. Important activities include animal raising, slaughtering, processing and packaging. The industry’s largest entities have international operations, and entities are integrated vertically to varying degrees, depending on the type of animal produced. Large industry operators typically rely on contract or independent farmers to supply animals and may have varying degrees of control over their operations. The industry sells products primarily to the Processed Foods industry and to retail distributors that distribute finished products to key end markets including restaurants, livestock and pet feed consumers, and grocery retailers.
  • Non-Alcoholic Beverages
    The Non-Alcoholic Beverages industry produces a broad range of beverage products, including various carbonated soft drinks, syrup concentrates, juices, energy and sport drinks, teas, coffee and water products. The industry is dominated by large, international entities. Entities conduct syrup manufacturing, marketing, bottling operations and distribution, with larger entities typically being more vertically integrated into operations that bottle, sell and distribute the finished products.
  • Processed Foods
    Processed Foods industry entities process and package foods such as bread, frozen foods, snack foods, pet foods and condiments for retail consumer consumption. Typically, these products are made ready to consume, are marketed for retail consumers and can be found on food retailers’ shelves. The industry is characterised by large and complex ingredient supply chains, because many entities source ingredients from around the world. Large entities operate globally, and international opportunities are driving growth.
  • Restaurants
    Entities in the Restaurants industry prepare meals, snacks and beverages to customers’ orders for immediate on- and off-premises consumption. Broadly divided into three sub-categories, the restaurant industry includes limited-service eating places, casual full-service eating places and upscale full-service eating places. Limited-service restaurants provide services to customers who order and pay before eating. Fast-food restaurants represent the largest share of the limited-service restaurants segment. Full-service restaurants offer more service, food for consumption primarily on-premises, and typically reflect higher quality food and prices.
  • Tobacco
    The Tobacco industry is comprised of entities that manufacture tobacco products including cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products. Many large tobacco entities operate globally. Entities may obtain or sell exclusive rights to sell certain brands of cigarettes in diverse markets. Most tobacco is grown by independent tobacco farmers, who typically sell their crops to tobacco merchants or to manufacturers under contract.
Health Care 6 Industries
  • Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals
    The Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals industry develops, manufactures, and markets a range of brand-name and generic medications. A significant portion of the industry is driven by research and development, a high risk of product failure during clinical trials, and the need to obtain regulatory approval. Concerns over pricing practices and consolidation within the sector have created downward pricing pressures. Demand for the industry’s products is largely driving by population demographics, rates of insurance coverage, disease profiles, and economic conditions.
  • Drug Retailers
    Drug Retailers industry entities operate retail pharmacies and distribution centres that supply retail stores. Stores may be entity-owned or franchised. Large entities source drugs and other merchandise through wholesalers and distributors. Consumer sales of prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical products generate a majority of the industry’s revenue; other goods sold include household goods, personal care products and a limited selection of groceries. Additionally, the pharmacy retailer segment is expanding its health-focused services by offering clinics at various retail locations, which may add to the industry’s shifting sustainability landscape.
  • Health Care Delivery
    The Health Care Delivery industry owns and manages hospitals, clinics and other health care related facilities. Entities provide a range of services, including inpatient and outpatient care, surgery, mental health, rehabilitation and clinical laboratory services. Demand for health care delivery services is driven largely by insurance coverage rates, demographics, illness and injury rates. The industry is characterised by high fixed labour and facilities costs, and an increased regulatory focus on reduced costs of care and improved outcomes. Health care delivery entities also face significant competition for patients and resources from private, non-profit and religious health care systems.
  • Health Care Distributors
    Health care distributors purchase, inventory and sell pharmaceutical products and medical equipment to hospitals, pharmacies and physicians. Demand for the industry’s services is driven largely by insurance rates, pharmaceutical spending, illness and demographics. The health care sector continues to face an emphasis on reduced costs and improved efficiencies, which also will affect the Health Care Distributors industry. Entities in this industry face challenges from consolidation and partnerships between pharmacies, payers and manufacturers.
  • Managed Care
    The Managed Care industry offers health insurance products for individual, commercial, Medicare and Medicaid members. Entities also provide administrative services and network access for self-funded insurance plans and manage pharmacy benefits. Enrolment in managed care traditionally has been correlated with employment rates, whereas revenue is driven by medical cost inflation. Legislative uncertainty and a focus on reducing health care costs may create downward pricing pressure and continue to drive industry consolidation. In addition, a focus on patient outcomes and plan performance continues to shape the industry’s sustainability risks and opportunities.
  • Medical Equipment & Supplies
    The Medical Equipment & Supplies industry researches, develops and produces medical, surgical, dental, ophthalmic and veterinary instruments and devices. Hospitals, clinics and laboratories use these products, which range from disposable items to highly specialised equipment. The increased prevalence of diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population are important factors that may encourage growth in this industry. Emerging markets and the expansion of health insurance may contribute to further growth. However, the extension of government insurance programmes, provider and payer consolidation, and regulatory emphasis on reduced costs in all markets may result in downward pricing pressure.
Infrastructure 8 Industries
  • Electric Utilities & Power Generators
    Electric Utilities & Power Generators industry entities generate electricity; build, own and operate transmission and distribution (T&D) lines; and sell electricity. Utilities generate electricity from many different sources, commonly including coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower, solar, wind and other renewable and fossil fuel energy sources. The industry comprises entities operating in both regulated and unregulated business structures. Regulated utilities face comprehensive regulatory oversight of their pricing mechanisms and their allowed return on equity, among other types of regulation, to maintain their licence to operate as a monopoly. Unregulated entities or merchant power entities are often independent power producers (IPPs) that generate electricity to sell to the wholesale market, which includes regulated utility buyers and other end users. Furthermore, entities in the industry may operate across both regulated and deregulated power markets depending on their operational span. Regulated markets typically contain vertically integrated utilities that own and operate everything from the generation of power to its retail distribution. Deregulated markets commonly split generation from distribution to encourage wholesale power generation competition. Overall, the complex task of providing reliable, accessible, low-cost power while balancing the protection of human life and the environment remains a challenge.
  • Engineering & Construction Services
    The Engineering & Construction Services industry provides engineering, construction, design, consulting, contracting and other related services that support various building and infrastructure projects. The industry has four major segments: engineering services, infrastructure construction, non-residential building construction, and building subcontractors and construction-related professional services. The infrastructure construction segment includes entities that design or build infrastructure projects such as power plants, dams, oil and gas pipelines, refineries, highways, bridges, tunnels, railways, ports, airports, waste treatment plants, water networks and stadiums. The non-residential building construction segment includes entities that design or build industrial and commercial facilities such as factories, warehouses, data centres, offices, hotels, hospitals, universities and retail spaces such as shopping centres. The engineering services segment includes entities that provide specialised architectural and engineering services such as design and development of feasibility studies for many of the project types listed above. Finally, the building subcontractors and other construction-related professional services segment includes smaller entities that provide ancillary services such as carpentry, electrical, plumbing, painting, waterproofing, landscaping, interior design and building inspection. The industry’s customers include infrastructure owners and developers in the public and private sectors. Large entities in this industry operate and generate revenue globally and typically operate in more than one segment.
  • Gas Utilities & Distributors
    The Gas Utilities & Distributors industry consists of gas distribution and marketing entities. Gas distribution involves operating local, low-pressure pipes to transfer natural gas from larger transmission pipes to end users. Gas marketing entities are gas brokers that aggregate and deliver natural gas in quantities that meet the needs of various customers, generally through other entities’ transmission and distribution lines. A relatively smaller portion of this industry is involved in propane gas distribution; therefore, this standard is focused on natural gas distribution. Both types of gas are used for heating and cooking by residential, commercial and industrial customers. In regulated markets, the utility is granted a full monopoly over the distribution and sale of natural gas. A regulator must approve the rates utilities charge to prevent the abuse of their monopoly position. In deregulated markets, distribution and marketing are separated legally, and customers have a choice of which entity from which to buy their gas. In this case, a common carrier utility is guaranteed a monopoly only over distribution and is required legally to transmit all gas equitably along its pipes for a fixed fee. Overall, entities must provide safe, reliable, low-cost gas, while effectively managing their social and environmental impacts, such as community safety and methane emissions.
  • Home Builders
    Home Builders industry entities build new homes and develop residential communities. Development efforts generally include land acquisition, site preparation, home construction and home sales. The majority of the industry focuses on the development and sale of single-family homes, which are typically part of entity-designed residential communities. A smaller segment develops town homes, condominiums, multi-family housing and mixed-use development. Many entities in the industry offer financing services to individual homebuyers. The industry is fragmented, since many developers of all sizes exist, which vary in entity structure and geographical focus. Listed entities tend to be significantly larger and more integrated than the numerous privately held home builders.
  • Real Estate*
    Real Estate industry entities own, develop and operate income-producing real estate assets. Entities in this industry commonly are structured as real estate investment trusts (REITs) and operate in a wide range of real estate industry segments, including residential, retail, office, health care, industrial and hotel properties. REITs typically participate in direct real estate asset ownership, thereby providing investors with the opportunity to obtain real estate exposure without direct asset ownership and management. Although REITs often concentrate on individual Real Estate industry segments, many REITs diversify investments across multiple property types.

    * The Real Estate Standard contains only climate-related topics and metrics and therefore was not revised as part of the ISSB’s December 2023 updates.

  • Real Estate Services
    Real Estate Services industry entities provide a range of services to real estate owners, tenants, investors and developers. Primary services include property management, brokerage, appraisal and information services for real estate owners. Property management services may include leasing, tenant relations, building maintenance and building security. Many entities also provide brokerage services, facilitating sales and leasing transactions. Appraisals and other advisory or information services are other specialised services commonly provided to clients. Entities in the industry play important roles in the real estate value chain, which is a substantial part of the global economy.
  • Waste Management
    Waste Management industry entities collect, store, dispose of, recycle or treat various forms of waste from residential, commercial and industrial clients. Types of waste include municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, recyclable materials, and compostable or organic materials. Major entities commonly are integrated vertically, providing a range of services from waste collection to landfilling and recycling, while others provide specialised services such as treating medical and industrial waste. Waste-to-energy operations are a distinct industry segment. Some industry players also provide environmental engineering and consulting services, mostly to large industrial clients.
  • Water Utilities & Services
    Water Utilities & Services industry entities own and operate water supply and wastewater treatment systems (generally structured as regulated utility businesses) or provide operational and other specialised water services to system owners (usually market-based operations). Water supply systems include the sourcing, treatment and distribution of water to residences, businesses and other entities such as governments. Wastewater systems collect and treat wastewater, including sewage, greywater, industrial waste fluids and stormwater runoff, before discharging the resulting effluent back into the environment.
Renewable Resources & Alternative Energy 6 Industries
  • Biofuels
    Biofuels industry entities produce biofuels and process raw materials for production. Using organic feedstocks, entities manufacture biofuels that are used primarily in transportation. Entities typically source feedstocks, which include food, oil crops and animal products, from agricultural product distributors. Ethanol and biodiesel are the most widely produced biofuels, while other types include biogas, biohydrogen and synthetic biofuels, produced from a variety of organic feedstocks. Biofuels entities’ customers are chiefly fuel-blending and fuel-supply entities, including major integrated oil entities. Government regulations related to the use of renewable fuel are a significant demand driver in the industry.
  • Forestry Management
    Forestry Management industry entities own or manage natural and planted forestry lands and timber tracts or operate non-retail tree nurseries and rubber plantations. The industry conducts operations on lands that can be entity-owned or leased from public or private landowners. Entities typically sell timber to wood products manufacturers, pulp and paper producers, energy producers, and a variety of other customers. Although some integrated entities also may operate sawmills, wood products facilities, or pulp and paper facilities, sustainability issues arising from these activities are addressed in the Building Products & Furnishings (CG-BP) and Pulp & Paper Products (RR-PP) industries.
  • Fuel Cells & Industrial Batteries
    Fuel Cells & Industrial Batteries industry entities manufacture fuel cells for energy production and energy storage equipment such as batteries. Manufacturers in this industry mainly sell products to entities for varied energy-generation and energy-storage applications and intensities, from commercial business applications to large-scale energy projects for utilities. Entities in the industry typically have global operations and sell products to a global marketplace.
  • Pulp & Paper Products
    Pulp & Paper Products industry entities manufacture a range of wood pulp and paper products, including pulp fibre, paper packaging and sanitary paper, office paper, newsprint, and paper for industrial applications. Entities in the industry typically function as business-to-business entities and may have operations in multiple countries. Although some integrated entities own or manage timber tracts and are engaged in forest management, sustainability issues arising from these activities are addressed in the Forestry Management (RR-FM) industry.
  • Solar Technology & Project Developers
    Solar Technology & Project Developers industry entities manufacture solar energy equipment, including solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, polysilicon feedstock, solar thermal electricity-generation systems, solar inverters and other related components. Entities also may develop, build and manage solar energy projects and offer financing or maintenance services to customers. The industry uses two primary technologies: PV and concentrated solar power (CSP). Within solar PV, two main technologies exist: crystalline silicon-based solar and thin-film solar, which includes panels made using copper indium gallium selenide and cadmium telluride. The primary markets for solar panels are residential, non-residential (commercial and industrial) and utility-scale projects. Entities in the industry operate globally.
  • Wind Technology & Project Developers
    Wind Technology & Project Developers manufacture wind turbines, blades, towers and other components of wind power systems. Entities that develop, build and manage wind energy projects also are included within this industry scope. Manufacturers also may offer post-sale maintenance and support services. Turbines may be installed onshore or offshore, which can create differences in wind-generating capacity and project development challenges for each type of installation. Most major wind technology entities operate globally.
Resource Transformation 5 Industries
  • Aerospace & Defence
    Entities in the Aerospace & Defence industry include manufacturers of commercial aircraft, aircraft parts, aerospace and defence products, as well as defence prime contractors. Commercial aircraft manufacturers represent approximately one quarter of industry revenue and sell mainly to commercial airlines and governments. Aerospace and defence parts manufacturers represent the largest segment of the industry by total revenue, selling primarily to governments. Both aerospace and defence manufacturers operate globally and serve a global customer base. Defence primes represent approximately one quarter of total industry revenue and manufacture products including military aircraft, space vehicles, missile systems, ammunition, small arms, naval ships, and other commercial and military vehicles. Their customers consist of various government agencies and related businesses with global operations. The defence prime category also includes firearms manufacturers that sell to law enforcement agencies, businesses, distributors, retailers and consumers. Important sustainability topics within the industry include the energy efficiency and emissions profile of products and management of manufacturing energy and waste.
  • Chemicals
    Entities in the Chemicals industry transform organic and inorganic feedstocks into more than 70,000 diverse products with a range of industrial, pharmaceutical, agricultural, housing, automotive and consumer applications. The industry commonly is segmented into basic (commodity) chemicals, agricultural chemicals and specialty chemicals. Basic chemicals, the largest segment by volume produced, include bulk polymers, petrochemicals, inorganic chemicals and other industrial chemicals. Agricultural chemicals include fertilisers, crop chemicals and agricultural biotechnology. Specialty chemicals include paints and coatings, agrochemicals, sealants, adhesives, dyes, industrial gases, resins and catalysts. Larger entities may produce basic, agricultural and specialty chemicals, but most entities are specialised. Chemicals entities typically manufacture and sell products globally.
  • Containers & Packaging
    Containers and packaging industry entities convert raw materials including metal, plastic, paper and glass, into semi-finished or finished packaging products. Entities produce a wide range of products, including corrugated cardboard packaging, food and beverage containers, bottles for household products, aluminium cans, steel drums and other forms of packaging. Entities in the industry typically function as business-to-business entities and many operate globally.
  • Electrical & Electronic Equipment
    Electrical and electronic equipment industry entities develop and manufacture a broad range of electric components including power generation equipment, energy transformers, electric motors, switchboards, automation equipment, heating and cooling equipment, lighting and transmission cables. These include non-structural commercial and residential building equipment, such as Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, lighting fixtures, security devices, and elevators; electrical power equipment; traditional power generation and transmission equipment; renewable energy equipment; industrial automation controls; measurement instruments; and electrical components used for industrial purposes, such as coils, wires and cables. In a mature and competitive industry, these entities operate globally and typically generate a significant portion of their revenue from outside the country of their domicile.
  • Industrial Machinery & Goods
    Industrial machinery and goods industry entities manufacture equipment for a variety of industries including construction, agriculture, energy, utility, mining, manufacturing, automotive and transportation. Products include engines, earth-moving equipment, trucks, tractors, ships, industrial pumps, locomotives and turbines. Machinery manufacturers use large amounts of raw materials for production, including steel, plastics, rubber, paints and glass. Manufacturers also may machine and cast parts before final assembly. Demand in the industry is tied closely to industrial production, while government emissions standards and customer demand are encouraging innovations to improve energy efficiency and limit air emissions during product use.
Services 7 Industries
  • Advertising & Marketing
    The Advertising and Marketing industry is comprised of entities that create advertising campaigns for use in media, display, or direct mail advertising and related services including market research. Advertising and marketing entities are engaged primarily by businesses selling consumer products, entertainment, financial services, technology products, and telecommunication services. Larger advertising entities are structured as holding entities, owning multiple agencies across the globe that provide a wide range of services such as custom publishing, brand consultancy, mobile and online marketing, and public relations. For any advertising campaign, the same entity may be engaged in all aspects, from graphic arts and content creation to data analytics, marketing research, and media planning and buying, or the entity may be in charge only of certain aspects.
  • Casinos & Gaming
    Publicly held casinos and gaming entities operate gambling facilities or platforms, including brick-and-mortar casinos, riverboat casinos, online gambling websites and racetracks. The industry is characterised by intense regulatory oversight, which is the main barrier to entry for new operators. Industry regulation varies significantly worldwide.
  • Education
    The Education industry includes education institutions that are profit-seeking and generate revenue from student fees. At the primary and secondary levels, this includes mostly education management organisations (EMOs) and some businesses. At the tertiary (or higher) level, services are delivered on a full-time, part-time, distance-learning, and occasional basis across establishments such as junior colleges, business and secretarial schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools including medical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary programs. An increasing number of students in for-profit universities take courses online.
  • Hotels & Lodging
    Hotels and lodging industry entities provide overnight accommodation, including hotels, motels and inns. This competitive industry is comprised primarily of large hotel chains in which customers base purchase decisions on a wide range of factors including quality and consistency of services, availability of locations, price, and loyalty programme offers. Entities often are structured in one or more of the following ways: direct revenue from hotel services, including room rental and food and beverage sales; management and franchise services with fee revenue from property management; and vacation residential ownership with revenue from sales of residential units.
  • Leisure Facilities
    Entities in the Leisure Facilities industry operate entertainment, travel, and recreation facilities and services. Entities in this industry operate amusement parks, film theatres, ski resorts, sports stadiums, and athletic clubs and other venues. Leisure facilities entities mainly generate revenue by providing live, digital or interactive entertainment to millions of guests and customers annually in various locations.
  • Media & Entertainment
    Media and entertainment entities create content and/or acquire rights to distribute content over cable or broadcast media, including entertainment programs, news, music, and children’s programming. Entities in this industry also publish books, newspapers, and periodicals, and broadcast radio and local television programming.
  • Professional & Commercial Services
    The industry includes entities that rely on the unique skills and knowledge of their employees to serve a range of clients. Services are often provided on an assignment basis, where an individual or team is responsible for the delivery of services to clients. Offerings include, but are not limited to, management and administration consulting services, such as staffing and executive search services; legal, accounting, and tax preparation services; and financial and non-financial information services. Non-financial information service providers may specialise in an array of topics such as energy, healthcare, real estate, technology, and science. Financial information service entities include credit and rating agencies as well as data and portfolio analytics providers. Customers of professional and commercial service providers include private and public for-profit institutions and non-profit organisations.
Technology & Communications 6 Industries
  • Electronic Manufacturing Services & Original Design Manufacturing
    The Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) & Original Design Manufacturing (ODM) industry consists of two main segments. EMS entities provide assembly, logistics and after-market services for original equipment manufacturers. ODM entities provide engineering and design services for original equipment manufacturers and may own significant intellectual property. Although EMS & ODM entities produce equipment for a variety of sectors, the industry is associated closely with the Hardware industry, which consists of entities that design technology hardware products such as personal computers, consumer electronics and storage devices for both personal consumers and businesses.
  • Hardware
    Hardware industry entities design and sell technology hardware products, including computers, consumer electronics, communications equipment, storage devices, components and peripherals. Many entities in the industry rely heavily upon the Electronic Manufacturing Services & Original Design Manufacturing (EMS & ODM) industry for manufacturing services. The industry is expected to continue to grow as technology use rapidly increases, especially among emerging market consumers.
  • Internet Media & Services
    The Internet Media & Services industry consists of two main segments. Entities in the Internet Media segment provide search engines and internet advertising channels, online gaming, and online communities such as social networks, as well as content, which is usually easily searchable, such as educational, medical, health, sports or news content. Entities in the internet-based Services segment sell services mainly through the internet. The industry generates revenue primarily from online advertising, usually on free content, with other revenue sources being subscription fees, content sales or the sale of user information to third parties.
  • Semiconductors
    Semiconductors industry entities design or manufacture semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, their raw materials and components, or capital equipment. Some entities in the industry provide outsourced manufacturing, assembly or other services for designers of semiconductor devices.
  • Software & IT Services
    The Software & Information Technology (IT) Services industry offers products and services globally to retail, business and government customers, and includes entities that develop and sell applications software, infrastructure software and middleware. The industry generally is competitive but with dominant players in some segments. Although relatively immature, the industry is characterised by high-growth entities that place a heavy emphasis on innovation and depend on human and intellectual capital. The industry also includes IT services entities delivering specialised IT functions, such as consulting and outsourced services. New industry business models include cloud computing, software as a service, virtualisation, machine-to-machine communication, big data analysis and machine learning. Additionally, brand value is important for entities in the industry to scale and achieve network effects, whereby wide adoption of a particular software product may result in self-perpetuating growth in sales.
  • Telecommunication Services
    Telecommunication Services industry entities provide a range of services from wireless and wireline telecommunications to cable and satellite services. The wireless services segment provides direct communication through radio-based cellular networks and operates and maintains the associated switching and transmission facilities. The wireline segment provides local and long-distance voice communication via the Public Switched Telephone Network. Wireline carriers also offer voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telephone, television and broadband internet services over an expanding network of fibre optic cables. Cable providers distribute television programming from cable networks to subscribers. They typically also provide consumers with video services, high-speed internet service and VoIP. Traditionally, these services are bundled into packages that charge subscribers a single payment. Satellite entities distribute TV programming through broadcasting satellites orbiting the earth or through ground stations. Entities serve customers primarily in their domestic markets, although some entities operate in more than one country.
Transportation 9 Industries
  • Air Freight & Logistics
    Air Freight & Logistics industry entities provide freight services and transportation logistics to both businesses and individuals. The industry consists of three main segments: air freight transportation, post and courier services, and transportation logistics services. Entities in the industry earn revenue from one or more of the segments and range from non-asset-based to asset-heavy. Transportation logistics services include contracting with road, rail, marine and air freight entities to select and hire appropriate transportation. Services also may include customs brokerage, distribution management, vendor consolidation, cargo insurance, purchase order management and customised logistics information. The industry is crucial to global trade, granting it a degree of demand stability.
  • Airlines
    Airlines industry entities provide air transportation globally to passengers for both leisure and business purposes. This includes commercial full-service, low-cost and regional airlines. Full-service carriers typically use a hub-and-spoke model to design their routes within countries and internationally. Low-cost carriers usually offer a smaller number of routes as well as no-frills service to their customers. Regional carriers typically operate under contract to full-service carriers, expanding the network of the larger carriers. Many airline entities also have a cargo segment in their operations to generate additional revenue. Entities in the industry commonly form partnerships or join alliances to increase network size. Operating as an alliance allows airlines to offer customers access to international or otherwise underserved itineraries on more than one airline under one ticket. At the same time, airlines share some overhead costs and increase their competitive position in the global market without having to operate outside their home country.
  • Auto Parts
    Entities in the Auto Parts industry supply motor vehicle parts and accessories to original equipment manufacturers (OEM). Auto parts entities typically specialise in manufacturing and assembling parts or accessories, such as engine exhaust systems, alternative drivetrains, hybrid systems, catalytic converters, aluminium wheels (rims), tyres, rear-view mirrors, and onboard electrical and electronic equipment. Although the larger automotive industry includes several tiers of suppliers that provide parts and raw materials used to assemble motor vehicles, the scope of these Auto Parts industry disclosures includes only Tier 1 suppliers that supply parts directly to OEMs. The scope of the industry excludes captive suppliers, such as engine and stamping facilities, owned and operated by OEMs. It also excludes Tier 2 suppliers, which provide inputs for the Auto Parts industry.
  • Automobiles
    Automobiles industry entities manufacture passenger vehicles, light trucks and motorcycles. Industry players design, build and sell vehicles that use a range of traditional and alternative fuels and powertrains. They sell these vehicles to dealers for consumer retail sales as well as sell directly to fleet customers, including car rental and leasing entities, commercial fleets and governments. Because of the industry’s global nature, nearly all entities have manufacturing facilities, assembly plants and service locations in several countries around the world. The Automobiles industry is concentrated, with a few large manufacturers and a diversified supply chain. Given the industry’s reliance on natural resources and sensitivity to the business cycle, revenue is typically cyclical.
  • Car Rental & Leasing
    Entities in this industry rent or lease passenger vehicles to customers. Consumers typically rent vehicles for periods of less than a month, whereas leases may last a year or more. The industry includes car-sharing business models in which rentals are measured hourly and typically include subscription fees. Car rental entities operate out of airport locations, which serve business and leisure travellers, and out of neighbourhood locations, which mostly provide repair-shop and weekend rentals. The industry is concentrated, with several dominant market players, who operate globally using a franchise model. The growth of public transit and ride-sharing services in major metropolitan areas may represent a threat to the long-term profitability of the Car Rental & Leasing industry if customers choose to hail rides or take public transit rather than rent vehicles.
  • Cruise Lines
    Cruise Lines industry entities provide passenger transportation and leisure entertainment, including deep sea cruises and river cruises. A few large entities dominate the industry. Cruises provide a luxury resort experience for thousands of passengers at a time. The Cruise Lines industry often has been the fastest-growing segment of the travel industry, but it is very cyclical.
  • Marine Transportation
    Marine Transportation industry entities provide deep-sea, coastal or river-way freight shipping services. The industry is of strategic importance to international trade, and its revenues are tied to macroeconomic cycles. Important activities include transportation of containerised and bulk freight, including consumer goods and a wide range of commodities, and transportation of chemicals and petroleum products in tankers. Because of the industry's global scope, entities may operate under many diverse applicable jurisdictional legal and regulatory frameworks.
  • Rail Transportation
    Rail Transportation industry entities provide rail freight shipping and support services. Important activities include shipping containerised and bulk freight, including consumer goods and commodities. Rail entities typically own, maintain and operate their rail networks, which may require significant capital expenditures. The industry exhibits economies of density because of its network effects, potentially fostering natural monopoly conditions. Together with the large sunk costs of rail infrastructure, this provides a competitive advantage to incumbent entities in the industry and creates barriers to entry for new entities.
  • Road Transportation
    Road Transportation industry entities provide long- and short-haul freight trucking services. Important activities include containerised and bulk freight shipment, including consumer goods and a wide variety of commodities. Generally, the industry may be categorised two ways: truckload (vehicles carrying the goods of only one customer) and less-than-truckload (vehicles carrying the goods of multiple customers). Owner-operators comprise the vast majority of the industry because of the relative ease of entry. A few large operators maintain market share through contracts with major shippers. Large entities often subcontract with owner-operators to supplement their owned fleet.